हार्मोन जो बनाता है 'नारी को नारी' Know the chemical that makes “A Woman a Woman”

Author : Dr. P. D.GUPTA

Former Director Grade Scientist, Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India


After a series of chemical reactions a chemical is made from cholesterol named as Estrogen.  It is made in the ovary in females in large quantites and in both male and females in Adrenal glands in very small quantities. Since it is produced in the ovary that is why it is named as “Female Sex Hormone” It  is produced in both men and women as said but man produces ten times less than woman. In addition to it’s main job -- makes “A Woman a Woman” that is the development of secondary sex characteristics such as breast growth, the release of the egg from ovaries, development of hair in the pubic area etc. -- it is involved in various important functions in the body that is why it is crucial to maintain normal levels to enjoy a healthy life. However, its levels do change with age which is totally normal and natural.

It has three types – estrone, estradiol, and estriol. Estrone is produced in the body after menses.. Estradiol is the most common form of estrogen that women produce throughout their reproductive years. Estriol is mainly produced during pregnancy. Its levels increase just before childbirth. Women produce estrogen throughout their life, but its levels keep fluctuating with the menstrual cycle and other phases of life (pregnancy etc.). In women, estrogen levels decrease with age, and in women, they usually increase with age. This is a natural process. However, there are some other factors that can cause a change in estrogen concentration before age.

In women, estrogen levels may change due to pregnancy failure, extreme exercise, eating disorder, menopause, development of a disease like hypogonadism and hypopituitarism, obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, and removal of ovaries.

In men, fluctuation in the levels of estrogen may occur due to diabetes, obesity, underactive pituitary gland, extreme dieting, extreme exercise, the use of medications that block estrogen release, puberty, and older age.

A little fluctuation in concentration does not produce noticeable symptoms. However, extreme fluctuation can induce negative changes in the physical and mental health of both men and women.

In addition to sexual roles in both men and women it also plays many other roles such as:

Roles of estrogen in a woman

As mentioned earlier, estrogen is a female sex hormone. So, it is mainly used for the:

Development of secondary sex characteristics

Regulation of menstrual cycle

Growth of egg follicles

Maintenance of vaginal wall thickness

Development of lubrication

Regulation of uterine mucus secretions

Formation of breast tissues

Prevention of milk flow during weaning

In addition to these roles, it also affects bone health, blood vessels, skin, brain, and hair in women.

Roles of estrogen in a man

Estrogen is involved in maintaining various sexual functions in men throughout their lives. Even though testosterone is the key sex hormone in men, it is important to maintain a balance between testosterone and estrogen in men for the normal performance of testosterone. In men, testosterone can also be changed into estrogen when the need arises. The main functions of estrogen in men are:

Production of normal sperm count

Ability to develop erection

Regulation of sex drive

Maintenance of testicular function

In men, the levels of testosterone decrease with age but the levels of estrogen increase. It is a natural process and does not cause any adverse effects.

High levels of estrogen 

In women

When estrogen levels are higher than the normal levels, then a woman may experience the following symptoms.


Panic attacks

Weight loss

Breast swelling


Formation of lumps in the breasts

Irregular periods

Low sex drive

Mood swings

Hair loss

Trouble sleeping or sleeplessness


In men

As described earlier, it is important for the sexual health of men that they have a balance between estrogen and testosterone. When these hormones get imbalanced due to the increased production of estrogen, then the following symptoms appear.

Reduction in the sperm levels

The problem in getting an erection (electrical dysfunction)

Development of enlarged breasts (gynecomastia)

Low levels of estrogen 

In women

Women notice the following symptoms when they produce low estrogen.

Lack of vaginal lubrication that leads to painful sex

Mood swings

Absent periods



Depression and anxiety

Difficulty in concentrating

In men

Low estrogen is not very common in men. However, if it happens, men experience the following symptoms.

Low sex drive

Loss of bone mass

Accumulation of fats around the belly


Estrogen is sex or reproductive hormone that is involved in many sex functions in both men and women. Maintaining estrogens normal levels in the body is important for healthy living. A decrease or increase in estrogen can produce different symptoms. If you are low or high in estrogen, then ask your doctor about different treatment options before choosing one. Women deficient in estrogen are often recommended hormone replacement therapy. It is an effective method of increasing estrogen levels to normal.