आंखें शरीर का दर्पण... Eyes are the mirror of the body

Author : Dr. P. D.GUPTA

Former Director Grade Scientist, Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India


Life is reflected in our eyes,. our eyes tell everything to other who know us deeply only by seeing our eyes that what we want to say. What words fail to achieve, the eyes serve the purpose. we may fail to communicate our affection or displeasure with words but certainly our eyes won't fail to give away our feelings. A person's whole world of emotions could be revealed by that just one very look of the eye. However, like windows, the eyes work both ways — meaning, they can provide a lot of insight into a person's emotional state, feelings, and thoughts; they are also vital tools that influence how we view the world around us

Eye examination aren’t just about vision. They’re about your health too. Health wise our eyes are windows to the live action of blood vessels, nerves and connective tissues throughout our body. Problems spotted in the eye are often the first signs of disease lurking elsewhere,as many as   20 surprising conditions can be detected during a comprehensive eye exam: 

Here are a few examples of health issues that may be discovered during an eye exam:

Blood and Heart related Disease

Heart disease is a general term that includes many types of heart problems. It's also called cardiovascular disease, which means heart and blood vessel disease. Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, but there are ways to prevent and manage many types of heart disease.

Ophthalmologists may be able to detect early signs of heart disease in the eyes. When the retina is examined carefully using an imaging tool called optical coherence tomography, doctors may be able to detect microscopic marks left behind by an eye stroke. These marks can appear in the retinas of healthy people, but they're found in higher numbers in people with heart disease. 

Cancers of blood, tissue or skin

Numerous cancers can be found during a detailed eye exam. Skin cancers affect the eyelids and outer surfaces of the eye. The most common types of skin cancers are basal cell, squamous cell and melanoma. Leukemia and lymphoma can also affect the interior aspect of the eye. Tumors in the breast and other areas can spread to the ocular structures

Giant cell arteritis

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a lingering inflammation of medium-sized arteries that affects the arms, upper body and neck. These same arteries help nourish the eyes, and inflammation can result in blurred vision, double vision, or even sudden vision loss in one or both eyes. A dilated eye exam and blood tests for this condition can allow for an early diagnosis of GCA. Medical treatment can prevent a lifetime of blindness or even early death.

High blood pressure

 High blood pressure, also known as hypertension. Patients with high blood pressure may have unusual bends, kinks, or tears in their back of the eye vessels. These are usually visible during a dilated eye exam and can provide a clear picture of the risk of stroke, aneurysm, or other complications. High blood pressure is a known risk factor in the onset and/or progression of glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and other diseases.

Vascular disease

Clotting disorders and bleeding disorders may cause visible bleeding in and around the eye. These are known as subconjuctival hemorrhages. These disorders can also cause retinal hemorrhages that threaten vision. 


Blood vessel blockages in the back of the eye or clots can   sometimes be detected by eye doctors. These blockages can cause sudden blind spots or give the sense of a “curtain” closing over a person’s vision. These can point to an increased risk for stroke. A loss of side vision may also be a warning of brain damage caused by a previous stroke. A regular vision exam, especially in older people, can help detect a stroke before it occurs.

Sickle cell disease

People with sickle cell disease, a genetic blood disorder, develop stiff, comma-shaped red blood cells that can block the flow of blood throughout the body. This disease can cause a huge spectrum of ocular changes, from redness and burst blood vessels on the surface of the eye to severe hemorrhages and even retinal detachment inside the eye.

High cholesterol

A yellow or blue ring around the cornea may be a sign of high cholesterol, especially in a person younger than age 40. Deposits in the blood vessels of the retina can also indicate elevated cholesterol. This may be the precursor to a life-threatening stroke.

Brain and Neurological Conditions

The optic nerve in the eye is essentially a brain extension. An eye exam can detect any neurological condition that affects nerve cells, including Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis.

The muscles that move the eyes are supplied with nerve cells that are controlled by specific parts of the brain. Brain injuries, such as strokes, can have an impact on the parts of the brain that control eye coordination and tracking.

A thorough eye exam can detect problems with eye movement, and vision training can improve the eyes’ ability to track and collaborate.

Aneurysm: An aneurysm is a bubble in the wall of a blood vessel. This weak wall can leak or rupture. Signs of an aneurysm can include a severe, one-sided headache or loss of facial or body function. Aneurysms can be catastrophic and require immediate medical attention.

Brain tumor: Tumors can cause increased pressure in the brain that gets transmitted to the eye. Swelling near the back of the eyes causes changes to the optic nerve that an eye doctor can see. Loss of side vision, recent double vision or changes in the size of a pupil are other signs of a brain tumor.


73% of diabetic patients sampled reported blurred vision. Even if you don’t have vision problems, Blurred vision can indicate a medical problem with the eye (such as cataracts or macular degeneration) and a more serious illness such as diabetes. Tiny blood vessels in the retina that leak yellow fluid or blood can be a sign of diabetic retinopathy. Sometimes, this disease appears in eye tissue even before a person has been diagnosed with diabetes. Early detection can help people avoid vision loss and other serious complications

Rheumatoid Arthritis

About 25% of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have eye problems, the most common of which is dry eye. Your doctor will suspect rheumatoid arthritis if you have two bouts of iritis, or painful inflammation of the iris,  

Ocular signs of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) most commonly include red eyes with deep, severe pain. This symptom can signal scleritis, a painful inflammation of the white part of the eye which requires medical therapy. Many people who have RA also suffer from dry eye. Inflammatory chemicals are abundant in the blood of people with RA. These can sometimes migrate to the eyeball as well as the joints.

Marfans Syndrome

Marfan’s Syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the connective tissue in the body. Extreme height and thinness, as well as unusually slender fingers, are common symptoms of Marfan’s, but the condition is sometimes diagnosed by eye doctors who observe characteristic changes in the string-like tissue that holds the eye’s crystalline lens in place.

Marfan’s must be diagnosed as soon as possible because the condition is frequently associated with aortic wall weakness. Aorta rupture is almost always fatal.


When the doctor examines the eye, they will look through to the pupil at the back of the eye. If there are dark spots, this could be a sign of early melanoma development. Following that, tests to look for cancer cells will be performed, and an eye doctor will monitor it regularly.

Thyroid disease

Protruding eyeballs and retracting eyelids are telltale signs of hyperthyroidism, most commonly caused by Graves’ Disease. This happens when the thyroid gland produces too much or too little hormone. Sometimes this coincides with dry eye, blurry vision or vision loss


This inflammatory disease can coincide with dry eyes. Lupus can also cause swelling in the white part of the eye, the middle layer of the eye or the light-sensitive tissue in the back of the eye.

Lyme disease

Lyme disease is an infection spread by ticks, which leads to inflammation throughout the body. Many people with Lyme disease experience inflammation of the optic nerve as well as an increase in floaters at the onset of infection.

Medication toxicities

Several drugs may be toxic to the retina and the optic nerve. Symptoms of toxicity include red, scaling eyelids, red eyes, scratchy corneas or conjunctivitis.

Multiple sclerosis

Inflammation of the optic nerve can be a harbinger of multiple sclerosis, a degenerative disease that affects the nervous system. Often, this inflammation goes hand-in-hand with severely blurred vision, painful eye movement or even double vision.

Myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia gravis is an ongoing autoimmune disorder that causes muscles to weaken and tire easily. The first symptoms of this condition often involve the eyes. The most common sign of the disease is drooping eyelids in one or both eyes. Other symptoms include double vision, weakness in the arms or legs, or life-threatening problems with breathing, talking, chewing or swallowing.


This inflammatory disease affects multiple organs the body, including the eyes. The most common eye symptom of this disease is iritis, a recurring, painful inflammation of the iris or colored part of the eye. This condition also causes severe light sensitivity.

Sexually transmitted diseases

Syphilis, herpes, chlamydia, HIV, gonorrhea, genital warts and pubic lice can all affect layers of the eye. These serious conditions are often detected during an eye exam.

Sjögren's syndrome

This autoimmune disease causes the body’s white blood cells to attack the glands that make tears and saliva. Unsurprisingly, dry eyes are a key feature of Sjögren's syndrome. Other symptoms include burning or stinging in the eyes, blurry vision and dry mouth.

Vitamin A deficiency

Dry eyes and night blindness are both signs of Vitamin A deficiency. Without enough vitamin A, your eyes cannot produce enough moisture to keep them properly lubricated. Low levels of vitamin A also lead to night blindness, by preventing production of certain pigments needed for your retina to work properly. Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable blindness in children worldwide.

It’s important to remember that these symptoms don’t guarantee you have a certain health condition.  The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommends that all adults get a complete eye examination at age 40. This is when early signs of disease or changes in vision may first appear. If you have risk factors such as diabetes, high blood pressure or a family history of eye disease, don’t delay — schedule an eye exam at an earlier age. (The author has his own study and views)